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双语新闻 | 如何写好英语论文摘要-4
文章来源:知识人网整理       更新时间:2021年01月08日

  写好一篇论文,需要一定的技巧,知识人网之前的文章已经为大家介绍过,该篇是双语文章-论文写作序列(共5篇)中的第4篇。

  First impressions are very important. If your paper makes a bad initial impression, there is a very strong chance that the reader will quickly stop reading. It will also have a negative effect on referees - if they struggle to read your Abstract, they will expect the rest of the paper to be difficult too, and may only to look for evidence that confirms this initial impression, even if the rest of the paper is in fact quite readable.

  第一印象非常重要。如果您的文章一开始给人留下了不好的印象,读者有极大可能很快就会停止继续阅读。这也会给审稿人带来不好的印象--如果他们一开始就觉得您的摘要读起来非常吃力,他们会认为您的文章也会很难读懂,他们甚至只会去寻找您的文章不好的证据,尽管您论文其他部分有很好的可读性。

  What key skills are needed when writing an Abstract?

  写论文摘要的时候需要注意些什么呢?

  The key skills are to write an Abstract in a way that will enable:

  好的文章摘要需要做到:

  • editors to make a quick decision on whether the paper is relevant to their journal (without having to read the whole paper) and is thus worth submitting to referees who will then judge the paper in its entirety

  编辑无需阅读全文就能迅速决定您的论文是否和他们的杂志相关,然后确定是否需要提交审稿人确认论文的完整性。

  • a reader to identify quickly what the paper is about, to judge how relevant it is to their interests, and so to decide whether they should buy / read the whole paper or not. This process is sometimes known as ‘screening’.

  读者能迅速了解论文的主题是什么,是否符合他们的兴趣,以确定是否需要购买或者阅读整篇论文。这个过程就是常说的筛选。

  • writing very clear and short sentences (max. 25 words, unless the sentence contains a list)

  句子要尽可能简洁明了(通常不超过25个单词,除非句子包含了列表)

  How should I structure my Abstract?

  我要怎么组织我的论文摘要呢?

  An Abstract generally answers at least the first three of the following questions, and generally in the following order. You can use the answers to these questions to structure your Abstract.

  一份摘要通常回答了下面的前三个问题,而且通常按照下面的顺序进行。您可以通过回答这几个问题来组织您的摘要。

  • Why did I carry out this project? Why am I writing this paper?

  我什么要做这个课题?为什么要写这篇论文?

  • What did I do, and how?

  我做了什么?是怎么做的?

  • What were my results? What was new compared to previous research?

  我的结果是什么?和此前的研究相比有什么新的发现或者结论?

  • What are the implications of my findings? What are my conclusions and/or recommendations?

  我的发现有什么意义?我的结论/建议是什么?

  How should I begin my Abstract?

  我要怎么开始我的摘要?

  When you read an advertisement for a product it never begins The objective of this advertisement is to convince you to buy … Instead advertisers go straight to the point. Abstracts are like advertisements for your paper.

  当你读一则产品广告的时候,广告绝不会像这样开始“这则广告的目的是说服你购买….” 广告人通常直接切入主题。摘要就是论文的广告。

  You want your abstract to stand out so that there will be a better chance someone will notice it and read it. If you begin your abstract with commonly used phrases (by both native and non-native English speakers) such as This paper deals with …The aim of this paper … This article explores … We report … you are not differentiating yourself from the others. In fact, some journals advise against using such expressions.

  想要您的论文摘要脱颖而出,让更多的读者注意到和阅读您的论文, 如果你论文一些常用的短语开始,比如:This paper deals with …The aim of this paper … This article explores … We report …,您的论文摘要就很难脱颖而出。事实上,有些杂志建议不要用这样的表达方式。

  Below are two examples taken from abstracts in very different fields.

  下面是两则不同领域的论文摘要。

  1.

  Original: In this paper we present the design and development of a highly innovative software application //, Transpeach, which allows mobile phone users to use their own native language when speaking to someone of another native language. The prototype version enables a Japanese mobile phone user …

  Revised: To extend automatic translation from written to oral communication we developed Transpeach. This software allows, for instance, a Japanese mobile phone user to talk to a Greek counterpart in Greek, likewise the Greek’s words are automatically translated into Japanese.

  2.

  Original: We present a procedure for the analysis of the content of // organic materials present in archaeological samples. The procedure allows the identification of a wide variety of materials within the same micro sample.

  Revised:  Archaeological samples used for identifying organic materials are by necessity extremely small. We have found a way, which we believe is the first of its kind, to accurately identify glycerolipids, natural waxes, proteinaceous, resinous and polysaccharide materials within the same micro sample.

  What should I not mention in my Abstract?

  摘要里不能说什么?

  You should try to avoid:

  论文摘要里应该尽可能避免:

  • background information that is too generalist for your readers

  背景信息对读者来说太过笼统

  • claims that are not supported in the paper

  论文中没有支持的主张

  • terms that are too technical or too generic - this will depend on your audience

  太过专业或者太过通用的术语——这主要取决于您的读者

  • definitions of key terms

  主要术语的定义

  • mathematical equations

  数学公式

  • generic quantifications (e.g. many, several, few, a wide variety) and the overuse or unjustified use of subjective adjectives (e.g. innovative, interesting, fundamental).

  通用的量词(例如许多、几个、很少、种类繁多)和过度使用或不合理使用主观形容词的(例如创新的、有趣的、基本的)。

  • unnecessary details that would be better located in your Introduction, such as the name of your institute, place names that readers will not have heard of.

  不必要的细节,最好放在你的介绍中,比如您的研究所的名字,读者没有听说过的地名.

  • references to other papers. However, if your whole paper is based on an extending or refuting a finding given by one specific author, then you will need to mention this author’s name.

  参考文献。然而,如果你的论文是基于特定作者的研究成果的扩展或驳斥,那么你需要提到这个作者的名字。

  How can I assess the quality of my Abstract?

  我如何评估我的摘要的质量?

  To make a self-assessment of your Abstract, you can ask yourself the following questions.

  在对摘要进行自我评估的时候,您可以问自己以下几个问题:

  1.Have I followed the journal’s instructions to authors? Have I followed the right structure (i.e. structured, unstructured) and style (we vs passive)?

  我是否遵循了杂志要求?

  2.Have I covered the relevant points from those below?

  我的摘要是否包含了以下内容

  background / context背景

  research problem / aim - the gap I plan to fill研究问题/目的—我计划填补的methods研究方法

  results研究结果

  implications and/or conclusions 发现/结论

  3.Have I chosen my keywords carefully so that readers can locate my Abstract?

  我是仔细选择了我的关键词,以便读者能够找到我的摘要?

  4.Whenever I have given my readers information, will it be 100% clear to them why they are being given this information?

  在给我的读者提供信息时,他们会100%清楚地知道为什么会给他们这些信息吗?

  5.Can I make my Abstract less redundant? If I tried to reduce it by 25% would I really lose any key content?

  如果我让摘要缩减25%,我真的会丢失任何关键内容吗?

  6.Have I used tenses correctly? present simple (established knowledge), present perfect (past to present background information), past simple (my contribution) 我的时态用对了吗?一般现在时(现有知识),现在完成时(过去到现在的背景信息),一般过去时(我的贡献)

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