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双语科学新闻|“弹奏”分子的化学键|致命高温已经到来|盲人“看见”脑中字母…
文章来源:知识人网整理       更新时间:2020年06月05日

  科学家“弹奏”分子的化学键 | 致命高温已经到来 | 肾移植中减少免疫抑制剂的调节细胞疗法 | 盲人“看见”脑中字母 | 人工智能与药学结合将受益颇多

  This week’s important news

  1.- Scientists ‘strummed’ a molecule’s chemical bonds like guitar strings

  科学家们像拨弄吉他琴弦一样“弹奏”分子的化学键

  Physicists from Universität Regensburg in Germany, have “strummed” chemical bonds just as if they ‘were plucking a tiny guitar string’.

  德国雷根斯堡大学的物理学家们“弹奏”着化学键,就像“拨动着一根小小的吉他弦”。

  To do so, the scholars used a microscope to study molecules of perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). These molecules were chosen for their flat shape, which allows them to be laid on a surface for inspection.

  为此,学者们用显微镜研究了苝四羧酸二酐(PTCDA)分子。选择这些分子是因为它们形状扁平,可以放置在平面上进行观察。

  The researchers oscillated the atomic force microscope's tip back and forth over the surface, measuring how fast the tip jiggled and how much energy was required to keep it moving.

  研究人员将原子力显微镜的尖端在表面上来回摆动,同时测量尖端摆动的速度并计算保持其移动所需的能量。

  Investigating chemical bonds in this way could help atomic force microscopes better characterize molecules, meaning this could be a new way to observe and study chemical bonds.

  用这种方式研究化学键可以帮助原子力显微镜更好地显示分子的特性,这意味着这可能是观察和研究化学键的一种新方法。

  参考链接:

  https://www.sciencenews.org/article/scientists-strummed-molecule-chemical-bonds-like-guitar-strings

  2.-Deadly temperatures expected to arrive later this century, are already here!

  预计将在本世纪晚些时候出现的致命高温已经到来

  When temperatures rise, our bodies produce sweat to prevent overheating; this self-cooling mechanism helped humans spread to every hot and humid corner of the globe.

  当温度升高时,我们的身体会出汗以防止过热;这种自我冷却机制使得人类散布在地球上每个湿热的角落。

  However if temperatures rise too much, humans reach a limit, that limit is hit when a bulb thermometer wrapped in a wet towel (“wet-bulb” temperature test) reads 35° Celsius, or 95° Fahrenheit;

  然而,如果温度上升过多,人类就会达到极限,当裹在湿毛巾里的球状温度计(“湿球”温度测试)读数为35摄氏度或95华氏时,这个极限就会被打破;

  even humans supplied with unlimited water would probably die after a few hours in these conditions.

  在这种条件下,即使得到无限量的水供应,人类也可能在几小时后死亡。

  Scientists scoured data from 4,576 weather stations across the globe, tracking trends from 1979 to 2017, and noticed extreme wet-bulb temperatures have occurred, mostly along subtropical coasts, where warm, moist air from the ocean collides with hot air on land.

  科学家们对来自全球4576个气象站的数据进行了梳理,追踪了1979年至2017年气候变化趋势,并注意到极端湿球温度已经出现,大部分发生在亚热带沿海地区,那里来自海洋的温暖潮湿的空气与陆地上的热空气发生碰撞。

  Through their study they noticed how40 years ago these events happened once or twice a year, but now data shows oppressive moist-heat events happen 25 to 30 times a year; there has been a doubling or more of these extreme events over four decades.

  通过研究,他们注意到40年前这些事件每年发生一到两次,但现在的数据显示,令人难以忍受的高温湿热事件每年发生25到30次;四十年来,这些极端事件增加了一倍或更多。

  参考链接:

  https://www.sciencenews.org/article/climate-deadly-extreme-temperature-predictions-already-here

  3.- Regulatory cell therapy in kidney transplantation to minimize immunosuppression

  肾移植中减少免疫抑制剂的调节细胞疗法

  A study consisting of seven investigator-led, single-arm trials done internationally at eight hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA, tested multiple regulatory CBMPs in kidney transplant trials to establish the safety of regulatory CBMPs, when combined with reduced immunosuppressive treatment.

  一项由7名调研人员领导的国际性单组试验研究,在法国、德国、意大利、英国和美国的8家医院进行,该研究在肾移植试验中测试了多个调节性CBMP,以确定联合减少免疫抑制治疗时调节性CBMP的安全性。

  The use of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) represents a state-of-the-art approach for reducing general immunosuppression in organ transplantation.

  细胞制剂(CBMPs)的使用是器官移植中减少免疫抑制的最新方法。

  Scholars found that regulatory cell therapy is achievable and safe in living-donor kidney transplant recipients, and is associated with fewer infectious complications, but similar rejection rates in the first year.

  学者们发现,调节细胞疗法在活体肾移植接受者中是可行和安全的,且较少感染相关并发症,但第一年的排斥反应发生率相似。

  Therefore, immune cell therapy is a potentially useful therapeutic approach in recipients of kidney transplant to minimize the burden of general immunosuppression.

  因此,免疫细胞疗法是肾移植接受者减少免疫抑制剂副作用的一种潜在有效的治疗方法。

  参考链接:

  https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30167-7/fulltext?utm_campaign=trials20&utm_content=130293863&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&hss_channel=tw-27013292

  4.- Blind people can ‘see’ letters traced directly onto their brains

  盲人可以“看见”直接描画在他们大脑内的字母

  Scientists from the department of Neurosurgery of Baylor College of Medicine – Houston, and the departments of Bioengineering & Neurosurgery  of the University of California – Los Angeles, have developed a new way to create "sights" for blind people, in which letters are 'written' on the brain itself.

  来自休斯敦贝勒医学院神经外科系和加州大学洛杉矶分校生物工程和神经外科系的科学家们研发了一种为盲人创造“视觉”新方法,在大脑中“写”字母。

  Scientists implanted electrodes, which stimulate the visual cortex (a span of neural tissue at the back of the brain) by producing tiny jolts of electricity which can make a person “see” small bursts of light called phosphenes.

  科学家植入电极,通过产生微小的电流来刺激视觉皮层(大脑后部的神经组织),使人“看到”被称为光幻觉的小光波。

  After the stimulation the blind volunteers were able to quickly perceive and then write letters. So far, the researchers have tested only simple shapes, such as the letters C, W and U. But outlines of common objects, such as faces, houses or cars, could be traced using the same idea, the researchers write.

  刺激后,盲人志愿者能够快速感知并书写字母。到目前为止,研究人员只测试了简单的形状,如字母C、W和U。但研究人员表示,也可以用同样的方法描绘普通物体的轮廓,如人脸、房屋或汽车。

  参考链接:

  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867420304967

  5.- Chemists: AI is here, unite to get the benefits

  药剂师:人工智能来了,与药学结合将受益颇多

  Scholars from the School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Science of Liverpool John Moores University, the University of Manchester and the European Bioinformatics Institute have developed a study of the current state of interdisciplinary communication, and created a set of guidelines and suggested approaches to help bring sub-disciplines together in order to improve computational-medicinal chemistry, and deliver better medicines to clinics faster.

  来自利物浦约翰摩尔大学(John Moores University)药学与生物分子科学学院、曼彻斯特大学(University of Manchester)和欧洲生物信息学研究所(European Biological Informations Institute)的学者对跨学科交流的现状进行了研究,并创建了一套指南和建议,这将有助于将各分支学科结合在一起,以改善计算药物化学,并更快地向诊所提供更好的药物。

  Their research contrast the way the latest developments in artificial intelligence (AI) have arrived into an existing state of 'creative tension' between computational and medicinal chemists.

  他们的研究对比了人工智能(AI)的最新发展,是如何进入计算和药物化学家之间的“创新危机”状态。

  The relationship between these two fields is being weakened by the application of over-simplistic AI methods which, in the case they fail to deliver, will end up reinforcing unproductive prejudices.

  这两个领域之间的关系正在被应用过于简单化的人工智能方法所削弱,如果这些方法不能实现,最终将加剧非生产性偏见。

  The scholars review what can be learnt from the history of integrating QSAR and structure-based methods into drug discovery, and stated that since nowadays we count with synthesis and testing available as contract services, the environment for computational innovation has changed, and its impact on the relationships of inter-disciplinary research should be considered;

  学者们回顾了将QSAR和基于结构方法整合到药物发现的历史,指出,既然现在我们将合成和测试作为合约服务,计算创新的环境就已经发生了变化,应该考虑其对跨学科研究关系的影响;

  Aiming to lead computational and medicinal chemists to cooperate in productive ways, in order to improve computational medicinal chemistry and, making significant progress in delivering new therapeutic agents.

  旨在引导计算和药物化学家以有效方式进行合作,以改善计算医学化学,在提供新的治疗药物方面取得重大进展。

  参考链接:

  https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00163


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