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双语|“开放获取”学术资源的利用
文章来源:知识人网整理       更新时间:2020年05月14日

  出国进修的访问学者或博士后,通常在访问期间可获得使用接收机构数据库、图书文献、在线研究工具等的权限,这是海外学术交流的优势之一。大学和研究机构通常是支付订阅费才能使用这些研究平台和特定资源的,但也有许多开放获取的科研资源正日益受到欢迎和广泛使用。

The Pursuit of Open Access

开放获取(OA)的广泛使用

  Scholars going abroad to work as visiting scholars or post-docs, are usually granted access to their host institution’s data-base, library literature, online research tools, etc. These benefits are part of their visits and aid their research. Although universities and research institutions usually pay subscription fees in order to use research platforms and other specific resources, there are also many open access sources of scientific research that are becoming increasingly popular and widely-used.

  出国进修的访问学者或博士后,通常在访问期间都可以访问接收机构的数据库、图书文献、在线研究工具等。这些都是访问带来的好处,有助于学者们进行研究工作。大学和研究机构通常支付订阅费才能使用研究平台和这些特定资源,但也有许多开放获取的科研资源正日益受到追捧和广泛使用。

What is Open Access (OA)?

什么是开放获取(OA)

  There is currently a broad international movement seeking to grant free and open online access to academic information, such as publications and data. A publication is classified as 'Open Access (OA)' when there are no financial, legal or technical barriers for the general public to access it. In such sense, any individual could read, download, copy, distribute, print, and search for the information. OA publications could also be used in education or in any other way within the legal agreements.

  目前,国际上有一个广泛的运动,寻求允许免费和公开的在线获取学术信息,如出版物和数据。在没有资金、法律或技术限制的情况下获取的出版物即为“开放获取”(Open Access, OA)。从这个意义上说,任何人都可以阅读、下载、复制、传播、打印和检索这些信息。OA出版物也可以在法律协议范围内用于教育或其他任何方式的交流。

  The OA publishing model eases scholarly communication, by making research information available to all readers at no cost. This completely opposes the traditional subscription model in which readers have to pay subscription fees to be able to access information.

  OA出版模式通过免费向所有读者提供研究信息,来简化学术交流。传统订阅模式是读者必须支付订阅费用才能获取信息,OA模式则反其道而行之。

OA Initiatives

OA倡议

  A great OA development is “Plan S”. Plan S is an initiative for OA Science publishing, launched in 2018 by "cOAlition S" (a group of national research agencies and funders from 12 European countries). Plan S requires scientists and researchers who benefit from funding provided by state research organizations and institutions, to publish their work in open repositories or journals that are available to all, by 2021. (Yes! You read that right, all their scholarly publications must be OA by next year). This initiative also suggest that OA, could eventually become the default publishing model within the next several years. And although there is still uncertainty about the long-term sustainability of this model, some publishers whom in the past were reluctant to abandon the subscription business model, are now showing openness to OA.

  OA的一大发展是 “S计划”。S计划是一项关于OA科学出版的倡议,由“S联盟”(由12个欧洲国家的国家研究机构和资助者组成)于2018年发起。S计划要求那些受国家研究机构和组织资助的科学家和研究人员在2021年将他们的研究成果发表在所有人都能获得的开放存储库或期刊上。(是的!您没看错,他们所有的学术出版物都必须在明年OA)。这一举措还表明,OA可能在未来几年内最终成为默认的出版模式。尽管这种模式的长期可持续性仍存在不确定因素,但一些过去不愿放弃订阅业务模式的出版商,现在对OA表现出开放态度。

  For your reference, these are the 12 European Funders, plus the organizations supporting the ‘Plan S’ Coalition:

  以下是12个欧洲资助者,以及支持“S计划”联盟的组织,供您参考:

  ·         Austria奥地利: Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung

  ·         Finland芬兰: Suomen Akatemia

  ·         France法国: Agence Nationale de la Recherche

  ·         Ireland爱尔兰: Science Foundation Ireland

  ·         Italy意大利: Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare

  ·         Luxembourg卢森堡: Luxembourg National Research Fund

  ·         Netherlands荷兰: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek

  ·         Norway挪威: Norges forskningsråd

  ·         Poland波兰: Narodowe Centrum Nauki

  ·         Slovenia斯洛文尼亚: Slovenian Research Agency

  ·         Sweden瑞典: Swedish Research Council for Sustainable Development (Formas)

  Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forte)

  Vinnova

  ·         Jordan约旦: Higher Council for Science and Technology

  ·         United Kingdom英国: United Kingdom Research and Innovation

  Wellcome Trust

  ·         United States美国: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

  ·         Zambia赞比亚: National Science and Technology Council

  ·         Aligning Science Against Parkinson帕金森病科学联盟

  ·         European Commission欧盟委员会

  ·         European Research Council欧洲研究协会

  ·         World Health Organization世界卫生组织

  ·         UNICEF – TDR (The Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases) 联合国儿童基金会-热带病培训研究特别规划署(TDR)

Implications and Challenges

影响和挑战

  Many scholars imagine a future of Open Science, and doing it through OA is a good concept, but the complexity of this issue should not be underestimated. There are many implications to this trend deeply linked to the publishing and education industries. An example of this could be commercial journal publishers bundling scientific literature for which there is a high-demand, with other academic resources for which there is a low-demand, and selling them, through undisclosed pricing models, to academic libraries around the world. As OA continues to gain ground, some publishers are looking for ways to protect their profitability margins by accelerating their investment in research infrastructure and data analytics platforms; bundling these smart tools with journal access.

  许多学者认为开放科学的未来,通过OA来实现是一个很好的想法,但这个问题的复杂性也不可低估。这一趋势与出版业和教育业有着深刻的联系。比如说商业期刊出版商可能将需求量大的科学文献与需求量小的其他学术资源捆绑在一起,并通过未公开的定价模式,卖给世界各地的学术图书馆。随着OA的不断发展壮大,一些出版商正在寻求通过加快对研究基础设施和数据分析平台的投资,将这些智能工具与期刊访问捆绑在一起,来保护他们的利润空间。

  But let’s focus on the bright side, more OA could mean more immediate, global access to scientific research, free for all. And since anyone could access it, the visibility and the re-use of academic research results is significantly increased. (Meaning more citation opportunities for you, yay!)

  但好的一方面是,更多的OA期刊可能意味着全球范围内的科学研究更直接的对所有人免费开放。由于任何人都可以检索,学术研究成果的关注度和二次利用也会显著提高。(也意味着有您有更多的论文引用机会,耶!)

  So, as a scholar going abroad to develop research as a visiting scholar or a post-doc, what are your thoughts on OA? Do you usually use OA sources for doing research and consulting scientific literature? Do you support OA? Would you publish an OA paper? Let us know in the comments!

  那么,作为一名出国研修的访问学者/博士后,您对OA有什么看法?您经常使用OA资源做研究和查阅科学文献吗?您是否支持 OA?您会发表一篇OA论文吗?欢迎留言评论!


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